“The India Century” India 2030 in light of the recent happenings in the past decade
Updated: Mar 11, 2022
By Prathamsingh Thakur (Co-founder, Stambh Organization India)
Prathamsingh Thakur is a Social worker, Social entrepreneur, and Journalist. He hails from Nagpur, Maharashtra. He is the Co-Founder of Stambh organization India, a registered organization, working for the betterment of society by organizing direct benefit campaigns, policy research boot camps, donation drives, and Educational programs for underprivileged children. Pratham has completed his bachelor's in International Journalism from the prestigious MGM College of Journalism and mass communication. He Works with National and International Social Organizations raising issues that pose a threat to the development of society. Pratham is also a sports enthusiast and a National Level Hockey and Karate Player.
I hereby declare the Research Project entitled "The India Century: India 2030 in light of the recent happenings in the past decade; an analytical study based on media coverage of the happenings throughout the world" has been conducted under the supervision and guidance of Mr. Tanveer Ahmad of MGM College of Journalism and Mass Communication and this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others' ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission.
Date: 07 August 2021
The Vision of a superpower India by 2020 was first put forth in 1992 by Dr APJ Abdul Kalam but it now seems that all his assumptions went wrong. Recently the current Government is proposing a superpower India by 2030. With the recent geopolitical and diplomatic changes in the modern world within the past few years. There is a need to study the current standing of India as far as the Vision of The India Century and the India 2030 are concerned. This dissertation discusses various aspects of becoming a superpower nation and the current standing of India. With India at its centre, this dissertation tries to find the odds of India to become a superpower.
This paper briefly explains the significance of Geopolity across the world. How india is emerging as a global leader having ruled by foreign invaders and britishers for around 1000+ years. This paper will also talk about social stability now as compared to earlier times. The paper will significantly deal with the strategic financial hold and vision to lead the world from the front.
Keywords: India Century, Media, Development, Finance, FDI, Stability, Stretigic relations
I would like to extend my warm and heartfelt appreciation to all the personages who have helped me in this endeavor. Without their guidance and encouragement, I would have not made headway in my Thesis. I am sincerely grateful to Mr. Tanveer Ahmad of the MGM CJMC for his valuable guidance and timely support for the completion of my Research Project. I am also grateful to Mr. Ankit Anand, Mr. Ashish Sahuji, and Ms. Vaibhavi Mungle, who all are Research enthusiasts working with policy research boot camps. I also acknowledge with a deep sense of reverence, my gratitude towards my parents who have always supported me morally each and every time. Last but not least I extend my sincere gratitude to each one of them who directly or indirectly helped me to complete my thesis. Any Omissions in this acknowledgment do not mean a lack of gratitude. I thank each one of them for helping me.
The account of online media's part in the majority rules system has changed throughout the long term. From the beginning, online media was viewed as giving a voice to bunches without voices in the traditional press, particularly during the Arab Spring and famous reactions to governments' starkness estimates following the 2008 worldwide monetary emergency. Proof of Russian obstruction in the 2016 Brexit vote and US official decisions turned around this story. Quick forward to 2020, when an influx of bogus data during the Coronavirus pandemic carried the difficulties of online disinformation to each country.
Russia's utilization of advanced devices to impact other nations' interior governmental issues is presently old information: China, Iran, Saudi Arabia have now settled themselves in this field. As of late, the European Union blamed China for being behind a tremendous rush of Coronavirus disinformation crusades pointed toward debilitating how governments react to the pandemic.
The last decade saw the progress of web-based media from an instrument of individual strengthening to a climate where data is weaponized for international additions. New state and non-state entertainers have entered the disinformation game, discovering better approaches to trick popular assessment and accomplish international objectives with each mechanical turn of events. Taking a gander at the public level, decisions turned into a point of convergence for impact crusades. Globally, international strategy entertainers witness cross breed dangers as the new wilderness of discretion in the computerized space. Worldwide privately owned businesses, for example, Facebook and Twitter presently impact public sway issues like political promoting, online political discourse, and more extensive international improvements through the force and strategies of their online stages.
This June, Democracy Reporting International (DRI) and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (SWP) think tank united international strategy and innovation specialists to examine patterns and impacts of the essential utilization of online media for political additions. The two-day conversations revolved around the need to include the international strategy of the local area in the international difficulties presented by disinformation crusades. The conversation likewise brought issues to light of the recent fads in this field, zeroing in on expected approaches to limit the adverse consequences of the online climate.
Two contextual investigations represented the intricacies of this issue: Ukraine and Libya. As well as managing a continuous clash, Ukraine held official and parliamentary decisions in 2019 while Libya was relied upon to hold races in 2019 as a component of its political progress guide. These exceptionally politicized and mobilized settings carry new points of view to the essential utilization of online media for international purposes.
According to the Russian point of view, the West established the climate for present day data fighting by concocting web-based media stages, which worked with upsets and fights all throughout the planet. According to the West's viewpoint, Russia began online data fighting against its neighbors (Georgia and Estonia) and specifically against Ukraine in 2014. Since the Maidan upset and the Russian extension of Crimea and the assault on Eastern Ukraine, Russia has been attempting to impact assessment in certain districts of the country for Moscow, while utilizing web-based media to additionally captivate political talk in different areas. This, in a nation where media opportunity and polarization were at that point issues.
Favorable to Russian accounts start principally from notable news sources, like Sputnik and Russia Today. These were then generally shared and misleadingly pushed on various web-based media channels as the assault unfurled – in an online climate brimming with garbage news and misleading content substance that helped the achievement of these impact crusades. In 2017, the Ukrainian government restricted Russian informal organizations like VKontakte (VK) and Odnoklassniki, contending that they were manhandled for Russian obstruction. By and by, disinformation challenges proceeded, as could be seen during the 2019 races. DRI's investigation additionally showed that homegrown entertainers, including official mission groups, utilized disinformation devices, for example, inauthentic Facebook gatherings, to assault the opposite side.
The Libyan online climate has transformed into a war zone of contending accounts that reflect the complex transactions between neighborhood entertainers, contending public governments and the numerous unfamiliar entertainers associated with the contention. In the present circumstance, web-based media compounds international strategy challenges and sets out huge open doors for online control.
DRI has been observing the Libyan online space since 2018. We tracked down that high-moving accounts circumnavigated around public safety discussions, well known people and political pioneers. One of those pioneers, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (the child of expired previous pioneer Muammar Gaddafi), had his discretionary mission fuelled by an advertising effort go through the "Mandela Libya" Facebook page, including various phony records. This page was set up not long after agents of Gaddafi visited Moscow.
Most of Libyan news sources are based abroad and, with no set of experiences of an autonomous media in the country, web-based media frequently follow the leads of TV stations that report from and for Libya. A significant number of these are exceptionally spellbound. Intensifying the issue, without a working state and foundations, Libya needs legitimate sources on improvements in the country. On account of Gaddafi's bid, a significant part of the substance pushing his mission online wound up being caught by online media sources, contacting a bigger crowd than the web-based media clients who were initially presented to it.
In the midst of such complex international circumstances, online media organizations regularly neglect to sufficiently manage bogus substance or disdain discourse that influences general assessment. This can harm basic freedoms, public power and compromise. Both the Ukrainian and Libyan cases underline that essential correspondence – be it to reinforce a nation's delicate force or as a way to plant clashes – stays focal in international relations. I Am really worried that such activities occur in a privatized space, where a modest bunch of organizations have the ability to characterize the restrictions of what should and can't be possible. Frequently, they pick inaction, staying away from activity to forestall manhandles.
There is some motivation to trust, however. Tech organizations joined forces with the World Health Organization to utilize legitimate data as a manual for distinguishing and bringing down bogus substances identified with Coronavirus.
With the expanded importance of disinformation in international relations, we are seeing the reinforcing of vital correspondence bodies, like EU and NATO StratCom, and a few bodies inside unfamiliar services. At first the British were just one gathering of unfamiliar brokers among a few, lucky to discover in the Mughals a firm government prepared to cultivate exchange. Their entrance into governmental issues was slow, first as partners of nation powers, then, at that point as their virtual chiefs, and just at last as experts. At each progression they were helped by nearby powers who favored British impact to that of their neighbors. It was basically in the a long time from 1798 to 1818 that they were deliberately imperialistic and just from that point that they regarded India as a vanquished as opposed to a gained country. The impact of this was to supplant the outdated Mughal system and the fruitless Maratha replacement domain with a hidden yet genuine authority.
Indians were familiar with the possibility of political solidarity and overlordship. They appreciated the British for being more effective than themselves, while reprobating a significant number of the British propensities and conventions. Yet, the old decision classes gave little indication of taking on British establishments; after 1818 they pulled out inside themselves, nursing their recollections as opposed to taking care of their expectations. The Indian systems of 1857 all expected a customary structure. The one office wherein Western impact was compelling was the military. From the time of Mir Qasim in Bengal (1760–63), Indian rulers started to prepare troops in the European way and to shape parks of gunnery. A portion of these bodies, coming full circle in Ranjit Singh's Sikh armed force, achieved a serious level of proficiency. Their concern was support, for most sovereigns came up short on the essential assets to pay their men and officials routinely and keep up with their arms. Indian assessment, as a general rule, considered the To be as the most recent holders of the conventional fundamental force. There was no oddity in the way that there were unfamiliar staff inside the public authority, for this had been a Mughal practice as well. What was new was the fake division between British India and Indian-administered India, with little contact between the two. The Mughals had polished organization for a century; the Turks and Afghans, subordinate collaboration; yet the British, it appeared, wished to fail to remember the Indian chiefs by and large.
Things were very divergent in the financial field. Up to 1750 the impact of the East India Company's tasks was negligible. Creation of cotton and silk products, indigo, saltpeter, and, later, opium was animated specifically in regions like Bengal, Gujarat, and Malwa, with some addition to the agents however no indication of any broad ascent in expectations for everyday comforts. India was then, at that point, as presently, essentially agrarian, and its enterprises, however critical, were peripheral to its entire economy. The last changed, in any case, with the securing of Bengal. The inclination for British vendors redirected exchange from their Indian partners, however a portion of the benefit returned to the British dealers' Indian specialists. The extreme present giving, a huge maltreatment of a customary framework, redirected a lot of cash to Britain. Even more, the tension on the zamindars for more income, and theirs thus on the cultivators, further decreased the Bengali pay. To this should be added the activity of syndications, public and private. At the point when the Bengal starvation of 1770 happened, a starvation figured to have cleared away 33% of the populace, little endeavor at alleviation was made, however it would have been practicable given Bengal's organization of streams. The unfeeling seriousness with which the income was as yet gathered right now postponed recuperation for a long time. Financial recuperation was additionally postponed by Warren Hastings' improvised income plans; and much separation was caused in the social design, with its own impact on monetary life.
British India extended past its organization boundaries to both the northwest and the upper east during the underlying period of crown rule. The fierce ancestral boondocks toward the northwest stayed a proceeding with wellspring of badgering to settled British principle, and Pathan (Pashtun) bandits filled in as a consistent draw and defense to heroes of the "forward school" of dominion in the provincial workplaces of Calcutta and Simla and in the majestic government workplaces at Whitehall, London. Russian venture into Central Asia during the 1860s gave significantly more prominent nervousness and motivation to British proconsuls in India, just as at the Foreign Office in London, to propel the outskirts of the Indian realm past the Hindu Kush mountain range and, in reality, up to Afghanistan's northern boundary along the Amu Darya. Master Canning (represented 1856–62), be that as it may, was very engrossed with attempting to reestablish serenity inside India to consider leaving on much else eager than the northwest boondocks reformatory endeavor strategy (usually called "butcher and bolt"), which was by and large viewed as the most straightforward, least expensive technique for "placating" the Pathans. As emissary, Lord Lawrence (represented 1864–69) proceeded with a similar boundary placation strategy and steadfastly would not be pushed or attracted into the steadily stewing cauldron of Afghan legislative issues. In 1863, when the famous old emir, Dōst Moḥammad Khān, kicked the bucket, Lawrence shrewdly ceased from endeavoring to name his replacement, passing on the Dōst's 16 children to take on their own fratricidal conflicts until 1868, when Shīr ʿAlī Khān at long last arose successful. Lawrence then, at that point perceived and financed the new emir. The emissary, Lord Mayo (administered 1869–72), met to meet with Shīr ʿAlī at Ambala in 1869 and, however reaffirming Anglo-Afghan kinship, opposed all solicitations by the emir for more lasting and commonsense help for his still tricky system. Ruler Mayo, the lone British emissary killed in office, was killed by an Afghan detainee on the Andaman Islands in 1872.
As a Fabian communist, Nehru had extraordinary confidence in monetary arranging and by and by led his administration's Planning Commission. India's First Five-Year Plan was dispatched in 1951, and the vast majority of its assets were spent on revamping war-broke railways and on water system plans and channels. Food grain creation expanded from 51 million tons in 1951 to 82 million tons before the Second's over Five-Year Plan (1956–61). During that very decade, notwithstanding, India's populace developed from around 360 million to 440 million, which dispensed with genuine monetary advantages for everything except huge landowners and the richest and best-instructed quarter of India's metropolitan populace. The landless and jobless lower half of India's quickly developing populace remained deficiently taken care of, poorly housed, and unskilled. Nehru's intelligence in keeping his country neutral sped up India's monetary turn of events, as India got considerable guide from the two sides of the Cold War, with the Soviet Union and eastern Europe contributing nearly as much in capital merchandise and specialized help as did the United States, Great Britain, and what was then West Germany. The development of iron and steel ventures before long turned into a genuinely global illustration of concurrence, with the United States building one plant, the Soviet Union another, Britain a third, and West Germany a fourth. For the Third Five-Year Plan (1961–66), dispatched during Nehru's time, an Aid India Consortium of the significant Western powers and Japan gave some $5 billion in capital and credits, and, subsequently, India's yearly iron yield rose to almost 25 million tons by the arrangement's end, with around multiple times that measure of coal delivered and just about 40 billion kilowatt-long periods of electric force produced. India had become the world's tenth most developed modern country as far as supreme worth of yield, however it remained per capita one of the most unuseful of the world's significant nations.
As advancement added solace and joy to India's metropolitan first class, the hole between the bigger modern metropolitan habitats and the spaces of broad provincial neediness became more prominent. Different projects intended to lessen rustic neediness were attempted, numerous apparently in copying of Gandhi's sarvodaya (provincial "elevate") theory, which pushed local area sharing of all assets for individuals' common advantage and improvement of worker life. The social reformer Vinoba Bhave began a bhoodan ("endowment of land") development, in which he strolled from one town to another and requested that huge landowners "embrace" him as their child and to give him a part of their property, which he would then convey among the landless. He later extended that program to incorporate gramdan ("endowment of town"), in which residents deliberately gave up their territory to an agreeable framework, and jivandan ("endowment of life"), the giving of all one's work, the last drawing in volunteers as popular as the communist J.P. (Jaya Prakash) Narayan, who was the motivation for the establishment of the Janata (People's) Party resistance alliance to the Congress Party during the 1970s. The Ford Foundation, an American magnanimous association, started a local area improvement and provincial augmentation program in the mid 1950s that empowered youthful Indian undergrads and specialized specialists to zero in their abilities and information on town issues. India's half-million towns, notwithstanding, were delayed to change, and, however various grandstand towns arose in the environs of New Delhi, Bombay (later renamed Mumbai), and other enormous urban communities, the more-distant towns remained focuses of neediness, rank division, and lack of education. It was not until the last part of the 1960s that synthetic composts and high return food seeds got the Green Revolution horticulture to India. The outcomes were blended, as numerous poor or little ranchers couldn't bear the cost of the seeds or the dangers implied in the new innovation. Besides, as the creation of rice and, particularly, wheat expanded, there was a related decline in other grain creations. Ranchers who profited most were from the significant wheat-developing spaces of Haryana, Punjab, and western Uttar Pradesh.
In March 2020 the public authority carried out a severe public lockdown to address the episode of COVID-19. The lockdown was facilitated in June, yet the pace of disease among the country's thick populace rose quickly all through the late spring, and by mid-August, the infection was spreading quicker in India than in some other country. Contaminations crested in September, in any case, and kept on declining until February 2021. Despite the country's inoculation drive dispatched in January, it didn't stay aware of a fast flood in cases, and India turned into a worldwide focal point of the pandemic by April.
As a feature of the work to counter the monetary effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, Modi attempted chief activity in June to diminish obstructions to selling, delivering and empowering private ventures. Pundits contended, nonetheless, that the arrangements made ranchers defenseless against abuse. Regardless of those worries, the changes were quickly arranged into law in September. Supported neighborhood fights the changes gave way in late November to huge coordinated fights in Delhi, which heightened throughout the long term that followed. On Republic Day (January 26, 2021) viciousness broke out among police and dissenters, and a portion of the nonconformists raged at the Red Fort. The occasion drove associations and other cultivating associations to drop a dissent got ready for Budget Day (February 1) with an end goal to bring down strains while less angry fights proceeded. Phenomenal endeavors were attempted by the public authority to smother fights, including the inconvenience of Internet power outages and reformatory measures against coordinators and members.
Media, Geopolitics, and Power:
The finish of politically-sanctioned racial segregation carried South Africa into the worldwide media climate. Outside organizations put resources into the country's papers while South African combinations sought after rewarding tech adventures and correspondence markets all throughout the planet. Numerous onlookers saw the fast improvement of South African media as a guide from tyranny to worldwide innovation.
Herman Wasserman dissects the discussions encompassing South Africa's new media presence against the setting of quickly evolving international relations. His investigation uncovers how South African debates in regards to admittance to, and portrayal in, the media mirror the control and imbalance in the worldwide correspondence circle. Hopeful people see post-politically-sanctioned racial segregation media as giving an indispensable space that energizes trades of assessment in a youthful popular government. Pundits contend the open arena reflects South Africa's previous divisions and advantages the perspectives of the tip top. Wasserman digs into the manners in which these shortsighted accounts darken the country's interior pressures, clashes, and mysteries even as he outlines the assorted idea of South African passage into the worldwide field.
At the point when the principal equitably chosen leader of South Africa, Nelson Mandela, was covered at his familial home in Qunu on December 15, 2013, this little Eastern Cape town was overwhelmed with global media. On the slopes sitting above the valley where a major marquee tent was pitched to have the dignitaries from around the world that came to say goodbye to perhaps the best legislator of the century, a media town was raised to house the more than 4,000 licensed journalists. Journalists from global organizations like CNN, Telesur, Sky, BBC, and Al-Jazeera, alongside neighborhood camera groups, correspondents.
India 2020 by APJ Abdul Kalam:
"Sight is about what lies directly before us. Vision is the thing that lies ahead". India is an old development and an incredibly intricate society. Her wonderful past, normal magnificence, assets, huge size or more the entirety of her remarkable geological area has consistently given her the pride of spot on the planet. With the high points and low points of his, ory it has held its dynamic quality. However, because of lack of care and torpidity on our part and because of the negative inclination of the media here, we as a country have not had the option to accomplish the situation with a created country up until this point. In his popular discourse conveyed in Hyderabad, Dr.APJ Abdul Kalam diagrams his three dreams for his country India and argues for Indians to be engaged with the country building measure and to make India a created country. For what reason do we require a dream? Kalam responds to this inquiry by referring to the instances of nations like the US, Malaysia, Israel and China and calls attention to that they are what they are today since they had a dream and they strived towards it.
The First Vision: Freedom In 3000 years of our set of experiences, individuals from everywhere the world have come and attacked us, caught our territories and vanquished our psyches. However, we have not vanquished anybody. Since, we regard the opportunity of others, and that is the justification of his first vision of Freedom. India got its first vision of this in the Indian Rebellion in the year 1857, when we began the conflict of Independence. It is this opportunity that we should ensure and sustain and expand on.
We have been a non-industrial country for over fifty years, thus it is time we consider ourselves to be a created country. As far as GDP, we are among the main five countries of the world. Our destitution levels are falling. Our accomplishments are as a rule internationally perceived today. However we do not have the self-assurance to consider ourselves to be a created country.
He imagines an India where the public economy of the nation is one of the biggest on the planet; there is upliftment in the overall expectations for everyday comforts of the average person well over the destitution line including exclusive requirements of instruction, wellbeing or more all, public safety. As per Kalam, there are four boss spaces of improvement: individuals, economy, key strength and framework and to accomplish this, innovation is the appropriate response.
The job of innovation won't just be to give modern apparatus and yet in addition to give materials of fundamental utility worth to the everyday person at a moderate cost. Innovation ought to deliver merchandise as well as investigate approaches to re-use side-effects in order to limit wastage and natural contamination. In this manner innovation ought not exclusively be for the classes yet for the general population.
Except if India faces the world, nobody will regard us. Just strength regards strength. We should be solid as a tactical force as well as a monetary force. Both should go inseparably.
Dr.Kalam considers how the media in India could be so negative. Giving the case of Dr.Sudarshan, who has moved the ancestral town into a self-supporting, self-driving unit, Dr.Kalam says that there are a large number of such accomplishments in India however our media is just fixated on just the awful news and disappointments and debacles. In Tel Aviv, where shocking killings, passings and bombardments occur every so often, the first page of the paper had the image of a Jewish courteous fellow who in five years had changed his desert land into an orchid and a storehouse. It was this moving picture that everybody woke up to.
Dr.Kalam is amazed at individuals' fixation on unfamiliar things. We need unfamiliar TVs, unfamiliar T-shirts, unfamiliar innovation. There is a fixation on all that is imported. As per Dr.Kalam, self confidence comes just with independence. Their similarity in Foreign Countries yet Detached in the Motherland. In India, we individuals fault the public authority for being wasteful, the laws for being too old, the region for not getting the trash and so on. However, what do we do about it? In Singapore, you don't toss cigarette butts on the streets. You wouldn't try to speed past 55mph in Washington and inform the traffic cop concerning your substantial associations with legislative issues. You wouldn't spit paan in the city of Tokyo. At the point when a similar Indian can regard and adjust to an unfamiliar framework in different nations, he can't do that all alone. You will toss papers and cigarettes out and about the second you contact Indian ground. On the off chance that you can be an included and grateful resident in an outsider country, for what reason wouldn't you be able to be something very similar here in India?
We sit back needing the public authority to thoroughly take care of us, while our commitment is absolutely negative. We anticipate that the government should tidy up however we won't quit tossing trash everywhere, nor are we going to stop to get a wanderer piece of paper and toss it in the container. We expect the rail lines to give clean restrooms yet we won't gain proficiency with the appropriate utilization of washrooms. With regards to social issues like ladies, share, young lady kids and so forth, we make uproarious protests and do the opposite at home.
Also, for this load of negatives on our part, we pin it on the framework. The entire framework needs to transform, we appear to legitimize. As far as we might be concerned, the framework comprises every other person aside from you and me. With regards to making a positive commitment to the framework we lock ourselves alongside our families into a protected cover and trust that a Mr.Clean will go along and work marvels for us, or we leave the nation and flee.
Like lethargic quitters bothered by our apprehensions, we rush to America to relax in their brilliance and commend their framework. At the point when New York became shaky we raced to England. At the point when England encounters joblessness, we take the following trip out to the Gulf. At the point when the Gulf is war struck, we request to be saved and gotten back by the Indian government itself. Everyone is out to mishandle and assault the country. No one considers taking care of the framework in light of the fact that our inner voice is sold to cash.
Kalam demands that Vision 2020 is surely reachable and supports this further by giving a few models from past triumphs e.g., the Green Revolution, the improvement of room innovation which began without any preparation to our present-day circumstance of our own personal satellite-based correspondence framework. Dr. Kalam weighs on two significant realities to accomplish this vision – Sensitization to issues and a will to accomplish. To have the option to accomplish this vision, one should transcend one's standard, unremarkable issues and attempt to accomplish something past the common: simultaneously dealing with the attainability of the undertaking. This implies that in spite of the fact that at the hour of explanation of vision, the objective may maybe give off an impression of being unrealistic yet never of time should it appear to be unthinkable.
Kalam has deliberately laid out the issues, recorded the current arrangements that are being offered, distinguished their benefits and negative marks and afterward, at long last recommends not one but rather a progression of arrangements so the most possible one among them can be taken on. For instance, in the medical services area, he has ordered the present-day infections as well as imagined the future illnesses and problems. Absence of cash and fundamental offices for poor people just like the primary bases for some sicknesses. He brings up how innovation can go to the front by assisting with outlining mosquito-rearing regions (to destroy intestinal sickness) by utilizing far off detecting satellites or the utilization of safeguard lasers to treat glaucoma and waterfall in the eye. This doesn't imply that Kalam neglects our normal assets or legacy. He stresses the need to tap native assets, our rich legacy of normal spices just as ancestral frameworks of medication. He even wants to connect with different human advancements and embrace what is pertinent from them, for example the Chinese needle therapy procedure. Kalam clarifies that improvements in science and innovation need to arrive at all pieces of society, really at that time would India be able to be genuinely marked as a created country. He portrays this formative interaction as one in a continuum. We ought not lay on the shrubs of our past accomplishments however should attempt to work on ourselves towards ever more elevated norms. In this manner the interaction of improvement ought to rise above all ages.
The establishment for this ought to be laid at the grass-root level. Kalam shows confidence in the youthful age by considering them the lighted personalities to whom the fantasy to understand the vision ought to be endowed.
We can't yet sincerely concur with the creator that to accomplish our Vision 2020, we should settle our shallow contrasts and think and go about as Indians. It's not possible for anyone to take us there, however ourselves.
S Jaishankar, The India Way:
The worldwide request is going through changes. In the event that it was generally bipolar during the Virus War and, momentarily unipolar get-togethers crumbling of the Soviet Association, there are indications of arising multipolarity. China is now the world's second biggest economy and a significant military force. Russia has emerged from its willful vital retreat. From Germany to Japan and India to Brazil, center forces are likewise expected to assume key parts in the new request. What ought to be the heading of India's international strategy in such evolving times? S. Jaishankar, India's Outer Issues Priest, looks to resolve this inquiry in his book, The India Way: Systems for an Unsure World.
At the point when a sitting unfamiliar clergyman composes a book on the country's international strategy, the peruser would normally expect a few experiences into New Delhi's arrangement thinking. In that sense, Jaishankar spreads out the wide structure of India's policymaking. He stresses a sensible methodology liberated from authoritative opinions, willing to face challenges and prepared to connect with various powers simultaneously. In the book, separated from the discourses he gave in the course of recent years, Jaishankar offers an outline of the advancement of India's international strategy through the entanglements and the chances ahead. "This is a chance to connect with America, oversee China, develop Europe, console Russia, bring Japan into play," composes Jaishankar, who was India's Representative in both Washington and Beijing prior to turning into the Unfamiliar Secretary and afterward the Outer Undertakings Clergyman in the BJP-drove government.
From what he composes, it's apparent that he doesn't support India joining any partnership framework. Yet, he doesn't uphold the old fashioned non-arrangement all things considered. He gives the case of Balarama and Rukmi of Vidarbha from the Mahabharata to come to his meaningful conclusion. Both avoided the conflict however they needed to confront the results in any case. "Where we have stayed uninvolved, we are by the by passed on to confront results. On certain inquiries, we run the risk of disappointing all gatherings. Where we have adjusted to bigger inconsistencies, our hesitance in doing as such completely has not been without costs," composes Jaishankar. It's a call for activity. Furthermore, the activity, as indicated by him, is characterized by "Krishna's decision"— "follow the dharma of the express", that is declaring public premium and getting key objectives through different means. All in all, his bet is on "different commitment" for a multipolar world. "It shows up more enthusiastic and participative when contrasted with a prior stance of abstention or non-contribution."
In India's commitment with the West, Jaishankar underlines the common qualities just as the progressions in progress. The West, he contends, ought to acknowledge that India's development "is an essential advancement in the bigger western interest". As to Pakistan, he discusses the Uri and Balakot models, contending that India set up another ordinary that fear based oppressor activities will not go unpunished. With regards to China, his mantra is authenticity. He compliments the "essential development" that is busy working between the two nations. "That acknowledgment prompted the Wuhan and Chennai culminations... the two events were practiced in unadulterated authenticity."
It's all around contended, and hardly any will differ that India needs to multi-draw in with an evolving world, without thinking twice about its essential independence. The issue, in any case, is that past this structure, Jaishankar, maybe obliged by his job in the public authority, doesn't offer better subtleties. India Way peruses more like a representative's handbook — which is significant in understanding the working of discretion — instead of an essential expert's evaluation of history and remedies for what's to come. It's not liberated from inconsistencies by the same token. Jaishankar weighs on India's pluralism, upsides of a multi-confidence society and its majority rule system. However the public authority he's essential for has been enduring an onslaught, both locally and globally, for jeopardizing India's plural qualities. At the point when he composes the West ought to acknowledge that "a world class made in western form has now outlasted its significance" in India, he sounds more like a legislator than a prepared negotiator.
Jaishankar obviously expresses the "economy drives strategy, not the opposite way around." Sadly, he needs to drive India's discretion when the nation is confronting a serious monetary compression — one of the most noticeably terrible among significant economies — which would, as indicated by his own contentions, limit India's choices. He praises India's authenticity in contacting China in Wuhan and Chennai (the book was composed before the Galwan conflicts). Presently, there could be new inquiries concerning the entire China strategy of the Narendra Modi government. Was its China strategy driven by authenticity or hubris?
While he appropriately faults inheritance issues for the China issue, one can't overlook the revolt in India's neighborhood against New Delhi under his administration, regardless of whether they are momentary aggravations or advancing key difficulties. Along these lines, while the international strategy system India Way offers is a legitimate record of New Delhi's perspective, its viability will be known just when tried on the special raised area of history.
Statement of Problem:
In Dr A.P.J Abdul Kalam’s book “India 2020” published in 1998, Kalam first put forth the vision of India that every citizen of the country admired. It was a dream that inspired a billion Indians and gave the country a fuel to work with an aim to be achieved. Kalam put forth a vision of a developed country with no poverty and unemployment. India in the 20s of the twenty first century was to overtake the economic giant China and it was to look eye to eye with the most powerful nation United states of America (USA). Kalam envisioned the country and wrote in his book “A developed India, by 2020 or even earlier is not a dream. It need not even be a mere aspiration in the minds of many Indians. It is a mission we can all take up and accomplish.” He also predicted the country would become poverty free by 2008.
If so, what happened in the midst that pushed the country’s ambition to become a world superpower to over a decade. Throughout the recent year, many Union ministers of India mentioned the quest of becoming a world superpower and set a deadline of 2030. Even the Defense minister of India Shri Rajnath Singh advocated India as a definite superpower by the year 2030. Singh in early 2019 claimed that India will replace one of the three top global players and will become a superpower. “By 2030 or 2031 Bharat will replace any one of the three superpowers, either Russia, China or America from the list of top three countries of the world in terms of economy and strength,” said Rajnath Singh. Even the experts in the country in 2019 claimed that India can become a developed nation by 2030.
Jeff Bezos, founder of E Commerce giant Amazon Inc in early 2020 during a visit to India said “I predict that the 21st century is going to be the Indian century. The dynamism, the energy… everywhere I go here, I meet people who are working in self-improvement and growth. This country has something special, democracy.” Bezos’s statement in 2020 certainly resulted as a public sentiment toward the aim as an achievable target and not a mere political sham. It resulted in common people’s revival of belief and faith in the country’s manpower and talent.
Reading all these giant quotes and claims, it certainly looks as if India has the 21st century in its hands. It feels as if India has waited long enough to get what it has aspired for decades. India’s improved performance on International stage cannot be ignored. Its improved strategic and military ties, growing economy and exponential growth in Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in the past decade make it seem practical. Countries eliminated poverty and improved living standards also seem like a cherry on the cake. It seems as if with this improved foreign relations, young population, giant economy, and important strategic partnerships, it will be a cake walk for the country to achieve the aim by the end of this decade which was visioned in 1998.
But with the recent geo-political changes in the modern world, is it still possible for a country like India to become the centre of world policy making and influential point. Will the country be able to handle the regional asian instability. Also for a county with a large section of society having unsatisfactory sentiments towards the government, is it even possible to inspire the masses to bring about the required traction to turn a developing country into a prosperous one. Also the recent tensions with our immediate neighbours such as China, Nepal and Sri Lanka makes it even tougher for the county to keep up with its pace to become a full fledged developed economy by 2030. The recent Chinese aggression and the exponential growth of China in the past few years concern many International experts who also choose to name the century as China’s rather than India’s. This can be easily understood from the fact that the per capita income of an average chinese citizen has increased by a margin of over hundred percent from 5,618$ USD in 2011 to 10,500$ USD in 2020. In fact, it has jumped nearly ten times in twenty years from 1,053$ USD in 2001. The same for India has grown only approximately thirty percent in the recent decade in 2011 at 1458$ USD to 1,901$ USD in 2020. India has recently also faced a harsh Covid-19 wave where the country suffered a huge blow with India topping the chart in new cases for over a month. India’s poor infrastructure was exposed blatantly in the wave where hundreds of patients died on hospital beds due to shortage of oxygen, medicines and even due to shortage of oxygen beds. The one and a half year of Covid-19 lockdown also resulted in numerous job losses with thousands of families pushed back into poverty. Many sole bread earners lost their jobs which led to massive economic slowdown and even a negative growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). All these factors are also equally important while predicting India’s stand in the upcoming decade.
The Idea that the 21st century, often called “The India Century” seems practical but is also equally challenging at the same time. The Indian Century is the idea that the 21st century will be dominated economically and politically by India, as the 20th century is often called the American Century, and the 19th century as the century of the British. The phrase is used particularly in the assertion that the economy of India could overtake the economy of the United States and economy of China as the largest national economy in the world, a position it held from 1 to 1500 CE and from 1600 to 1700 CE. Is it even possible? This is what this dissertation tries to answer.
We have seen many countries rise from extreme poverty and become global leaders in the respective fields within decades. Take for example Singapore, which was a country with extreme poverty, inequality and unemployment till late 1960’s. It gained its independence in 1965 after it was expelled from malaysia. After the separation, the fledgling nation had to become self-sufficient, and faced problems including mass unemployment, housing shortages and lack of land and natural resources such as petroleum. But with a vision for the nation, the administration curbed unemployment, raised the standard of living and implemented a large-scale public housing programme. The country's economic infrastructure was developed, racial tension was eliminated and an independent national defence system was created. Singapore evolved from a dying nation to first world status towards the end of the 20th century.
So is it possible for a country like India to overturn its bad days and get amongst the most prosperous countries of the world? In this detailed dissertation thesis, we will discuss the various aspects where if performed well India can certainly become a global leader. We will also discuss the role of regional and International instability and recents drastic changes in the geo-politics that will at some point facilitate and at some point disturb the quest of India to become a self sustained and self dependent economic and political power in the world.
Objective behind Research:
The objective behind this research is to analyze, assess and study the idea of Indian Century with respect to the current geopolitical, socio-cultural and economic changes in the world in the last decade based on the media coverage of the respective events. The dissertation will also analyze the strategic and global powers with respect to the vision of India on various criterias and benchmarks. It will try to assess the probability and odds of the nation in the race to become a world strategic, economic and political leader. The vision laid in the late 90s of the twentieth century by various thought leaders of the county will be examined throughout the study.
The dissertation in general tries to answer one big question; With the recent geopolitical changes in the modern world, will India be able to achieve its vision of becoming a superpower nation having its influence over the world by 2030. Along with this the dissertation will also assess various issues such as the importance of economic and financial stability and stronghold of a country to become world leader, political stability required, & military and strategic accomplishment required for the same. It will analyze by quantitative and qualitative comparison of the mentioned factors with respect to various rising nations in the world. Global leader is a feat for which societal and internal prosperity of a nation is an essential factor. The research will also try to study the current internal political and economic standing of the nation while drawing up a quantitative comparison on the above benchmarks. The paper will also touch the necessity of self sustainability and self dependency in the long run while managing the existing resources and potential of the nation. For any developed nation, Foreign direct Investments (FDI) play a major role in giving a boost to a country's development and it acts as a catalyst to elevate its position in the international arena. The paper will certainly cover this aspect to analyze the importance of the issue.
No country in the long run can become a global leader without internal stability and socio-cultural peace. Social peace also drives in more investment and also motivates the youth to innovate eventually leading to employment creation and prosperity of the society. It also enables the nation to self manufacture eliminating its dependency on other nations making it independent while taking crucial strategic steps. Similarly, infrastructure development acts as a factor that exponentially boosts the country’s economic development taking it steps ahead in the International arena. The research paper will also analyze all the above points to assess the odds of the country becoming a superpower by the end of this decade. Education and literacy also plays a huge role in development of the people of the nation ultimately resulting in a better and more skilled country. In the past few years emphasis has been laid on the importance of education for a nation but is it enough to climb to the top with mere three percent annual spending on education from the annual union budget. The National Policy on Education 1968 recommended the spending on Education to be 6% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) but the current spendings are only half of it. Indeed the budget for education in India has been steadily increasing year by year, but with the current pace, is it possible for the country to emerge at the top. This paper will analyze and assess the same.
Military and strategic importance is also a key aspect of deciding a country’s supremacy in the world where all nations are in a rush to establish and manifest their strategic stronghold in the world. Existing research needs to be compiled in a concentrated fashion in order to assess a country’s strategic power in the world. The research will also compile a series of data and will study the rise and downfall of various influential world powers in the twenty first century. Recent events in the world have drastically changed the way geo-politics and international diplomacy of countries used to operate. The very recent studies and research needs to be reexamined in order to assess the current world happenings in relation to strategic advantages to various nations.
Media’s coverage throughout the recent decade will also be analyzed through this research paper in order to get a better understanding of the possibility of India achieving its dream of India Century. Both internally and Internationally Media in the past decade was both praised and criticized at the same time. Many media organizations and individuals were praised to emerge as the protector of justice and democracy through honest coverage of serious issues. While on the other hand, a large number of Media houses throughout the globe was also criticized and condemned for unethical and biased journalism. This research paper aims to identify, and assess the credibility of the media and the importance of media with respect to international events.
In a nutshell, the objective of this research is to analyze the existing studies, and to examine the recent happenings across the globe with respect to India’s 2030 vision pushed by the current India government. There are numerous studies which try to answer the above questions individually and which need to be compiled in an India centric approach so as to analyze the odds of India in the race of nations to become a superpower. There are also studies that need to be re-examined after the recent and drastic geo-political shift in the global world in the last few years.
Emphasis on education, and academic research must be laid to ensure the skill development of the people of the nation. The fact that not only Indian universities could make it to the list of top 200 universities of the 18th edition of the QS (Quacquarelli Symonds, most-consulted international university rankings in the world), indicates the lack of quality of primary, secondary and higher education in India. On the other hand India was able to register as many as 19 universities in the top 200 of the Times Higher group’s Asia top University rankings 2021. This is a concern, but compared to the current development of the country’s stance in the past few years, India has grown from no places to 3 places in the world top 200. It has also improved from 3 universities in Asia top 200 in 2014 to 19 universities in Asia top 200.
Chapter 1: Importance of Stable and Strong economy to become a superpower;
Critically analyzing modern history;
Critically analyzing modern history all countries that have made it to the top of the world were economic power houses consisting of a large chunk of the world economy. According to a report of the Visual Capital, published on 8th september 2017, the Indian subcontinent at its peak in 1000 AD consisted of nearly forty percent of the world economy. Similarly China at its peak contributed thirty-five percent of the world economy. The United Kingdom, USSR, and the USA have been at the peak of their influence when their economy was at the all time best. After the second world war, as the United States of america’s economy gained momentum, it today captures nearly twenty five of the world GDP. This clearly establishes the fact that the economy is the most important and important factor when it comes to establishing influence on other nations. The below graphic which was first published in The Atlantic in June 2008, and later published with all necessary additions in September 2017, gives a visual representation of the world economy changes in the past 2000 year. India on the other hand shares only 3.25% share in the total GDP of the world. This places India on the sixth spot, ranking below the USA, China, Japan, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Also as indicated by the IMF World Monetary (April-2021), India's Gross domestic product development rate in 2021 is projected at 12.55%. India is in the fifth position out of 193 economies. India is among six economies that will encounter a twofold-digit development rate in 2021. With a 7.965% constriction in 2020, India is at the 150th position. India was among the best ten developing economies in two years, 2016 (seventh out of 203) and 2015 (ninth out of 204).
Genuine Gross domestic product development or Total national output (Gross domestic product) development of India at steady (2011-12) costs in the year 2020-21 is assessed at 7.25 percent contrasted with the development pace of 4.04 percent in 2019-20. The development in the total national output in 2020-21 is the slowest since 1950-51. GVA development paces of the Horticulture and united, Industry, and Administrations areas are 3.63%, - 6.96%, and - 8.36%, separately. India has enrolled the most noteworthy development of 3.63% in the 'Horticulture, ranger service, and fishing' area and least - 18.2% in 'Exchange, lodgings, transport, correspondence and administrations identified with broadcasting' area. By and large GVA development at consistent costs is - 6.16%.
With Gross domestic product development paces of - 2.97% at current costs in 2019-20, India has recorded the most reduced ostensible development rate in the 2011-12 series. The 2004-05 series is the second most reduced get-togethers 6.06 in 1954-55. GVA development paces of the Horticulture and united, Industry, and Administrations areas are 6.56%, - 5.61%, and - 4.86%, separately. Generally, GVA development at current costs is - 2.96%. In the 2004-05 series, the normal development rate from 1951 to 2014 stands at 4.96%, arriving at an unequaled high of 10.16% in 1988-89 and a record low of - 5.2% in 1979-80. In 4 years, development was negative.
This exposes the not so good position of India on the world economic standpoint. But it is certainly possible for India to evolve as an influential world super power, considering the favorable atmosphere, young population and a skilled country. But to succeed it is equally important to emphasise on education and academic research.
According to a statistic by the International Monetary fund (IMF), India is predicted to grow its economy in double digits in the year 2021. With around 12.5% (predicted) growth in GDP for the fiscal year 2021. Compared to the world economy recovery after th covid-19 pandemic, India is the only country that is predicted to have a double digit growth in the year. Most of the countries have been predicted to have an estimated growth rate of 8 percent. With countries like China, USA and UK lagging far behind India as far as the growth in GDP is considered, the potential of the ‘Giant Elephant Economy’ cannot be ignored. With instability in the regional neighbouring countries and the post covid economic crisis, this can be an opportunity for India to climb the ladder to becoming world super power.
In an article of the times of India on 6th April 2021, the media house noted “The International Monetary Fund (IMF) on Tuesday projected an impressive 12.5 per cent growth rate for India in 2021, stronger than that of China, the only major economy to have a positive growth rate last year during the Covid 19 pandemic. The global financial institution, in its annual World Economic Outlook ahead of the annual Spring meeting with the World Bank, said India's economy is expected to grow by 6.9 per cent in 2022. Notably in 2020, the economy contracted by a record eight per cent, the IMF said as it projected an impressive 12.5 per cent growth rate for the country in 2021.”
Another advantageous aspect is the decline in the cheap manufacturing capacity of China. After China opened its economy to the world and shifted its ‘economic ideology’ away from communism and towards capitalism, it opened a new door for the world to manufacture their products in a substantially cheaper amount than any other place in the world. This was because of the cheap labour wages in the country. Back in the late nineteen seventies, China began to work on developing the specialized economic zones that would help China maximize productivity. This emerged as a boon for China as the world shifted its production in China owing to the cheaper cost of production in China. In the 1990s the average annual wage of a worker in China was $150 USD. But owing to the economic prosperity of China over the past 50 years, the annual wage of a worker in China in 2020 was around $13,500 USD. This translates to an increase of 8900% in the annual income of an average worker in China. This has resulted in an increased price of manufacturing that what it was in the 1990s. Which resulted in a decrease in the total manufacturing output of the country for the first time in the modern history of China. In any case, that was only the main consideration. After 2016, China indeed saw unobtrusive expansions in assembly yield, until the US forced taxes on imports from China. Not only the rising worker wages but also the international souring of the relationship with China also resulted in the downfall of China’s total production output. This also caused an abatement in Chinese imports to the US by 7% in 2019, and constrained numerous organizations to start searching for item sourcing in different nations.
What's more, in case that wasn't sufficient, security concerns and strains among China and the Western world have been on the ascent since the time the nation started assuming control over a piece of the universe's tech area. Since then, at that point, governments all throughout the planet have been effectively attempting to push Chinese innovation out of their nations, while likewise boosting organizations to make their items locally rather than China. Owing to this growing economies as Vietnam, Mexico and India are looked upon as an alternative to set up manufacturing units. This can also translate into a favorable factor for India becoming a superpower.
The Foreign Direct Investments is significant for developing economies and emerging markets where companies need funding and expertise to expand their international sales. Private investment in infrastructure, energy, and water is a critical driver of the economy as it helps in increasing jobs and wages. Today, India is possibly the most appealing destination due to liberalized norms, easy policies and subsidised rates. Foreign investors are also willing to invest in the country due to lower labour costs, market diversification, subsidies, and preferential tariffs.
The inflow of Foreign direct Investment in India has been significantly increased from a mere 0.13 Billion $ USD in 1990 to 64.6 Billion $ USD in 2020. This translated to a massive 49,500% increase in the FDI over thirty years. On the other hand no other major player in the world has attracted this big FDI apart from China.
Chapter 2: Social Stability, Trust in government, Education, Self Sustainability, Development;
2 (A) Religious and societal instability in India and Economy;
What does religion have to do with financial matters, and the other way around? While these may appear to be dissimilar concerns, their profound verifiable association drives Sriya Iyer's request in The Economics of Religion in India, which attempts to extend the investigation of religion through financial examination and digs into the changing socioeconomics of India's strict pluralism according to its worldwide monetary rising.
The colonizing forces of Europe consolidated the Christian church's "enlightening mission" to legitimize the catch of terrains that didn't have a place with them, the enslavement and mistreatment of individuals whose societies and dialects were unfamiliar to them, and the misuse of assets to swell their coffers. An omnipotent authorization was conjured by the winners to legitimize the massacre of native people groups across the New World; advance bondage in the United States, the Americas, and all throughout the planet; and inspire the Opium Wars, which the British East India Company used to hold onto Chinese business sectors while driving Indian workers to develop poppies rather than life-supporting rice or vegetables.
Iyer composed the book to "urge financial analysts to offer their bits of knowledge and techniques as a powerful influence for the investigation of religion," which she accepts would be helpful for agricultural nations, like India, that are portrayed by their strict pluralism. Iyer, for instance, utilizes factual examinations of paper investigating what India alludes to as “shared mobs”— clashes between two unique strict networks that lead to life and property misfortune and harm—to uncover their causes. She tracks down a solid connection between such strife and state-political race years; these uproars are impelled by ideological groups wanting to aggravate the Hindu base and target Muslims, who are gathered in metropolitan regions. These discoveries are additionally investigated in Iyer's remarkable review of strict associations in seven of India's 29 states looking to see better how unique strict networks have reacted to financial movements as India changed its economy. The review additionally permits her to test her speculation that religions increment their arrangement of administrations as a levelheaded reaction to saw financial imbalance and contest. The entrancing reactions to the inquiries clarify how quick financial advancement in India after 1991 constrained strict associations of each stripe to offer expanded degrees of administrations to address developing disparity.
Iyer focuses on monetary information to ruin the Hindu Nationalists' alarm strategies about Muslims having such a large number of youngsters and subsequently essentially changing India's socioeconomics. She shows that high fruitfulness rates are firmly related with low training and pay levels instead of with strict convictions. The noteworthy work of the 2007 Rajinder Sachar Committee, which covered the ruined day to day environments of Muslims in India, explains the numerous weaknesses the Muslim people group has encountered in India since freedom, including being weak focuses of disdain violations.
These alarming discoveries legitimize the utilization of financial examination to get religion. Be that as it may, Iyer's contention is debilitated by its dependence on reductive associations, two of which are the propensity to compare religion in India with Hinduism and to utilize nearsighted and elitist portrayals and meanings of Hinduism. Hinduism and India are not equivalent, in spite of the best endeavors of the current conservative Hindu patriot government to in this way recognize them in open awareness. By neglecting to explain this, she frequently takes a gander at the connection among financial aspects and Hinduism as opposed to among financial matters and religion. Iyer conjures the bounty of scholarly exploration by financial specialists zeroed in only on Christianity and Islam to legitimize this condition of religion with Hinduism. This looks bad for a book on India, which she, at the end of the day, contends is characterized by complex strict majority inside a rapidly developing and progressively incredible economy. An illustration of this inner disarray is that the book has an entire section zeroing in on the madrasa framework, an Islamic instructive establishment serving the Muslim minority in India, while one may have expected a book zeroed in on Hinduism to incorporate an exhaustive audit of Hindu patriot schools and instructive projects that have jumped up across India over the previous many years.
It is so hard to attempt to clarify the pluralism of Indian strict customs, the single adaptable cell like pluralism of Hinduism itself, or the intricacy of Indian legislative issues to global crowds, particularly to an American one, new to non-Abrahamic strict practices. However, assuming a book attests that it tries to clarify Hinduism, it should recognize the long term endeavours by Dalit ("untouchables") and Adivasi (native individuals additionally called Forest Dwellers) activists who have brought up that any story about Hinduism should recognize the understood inclination intrinsic in most upper-station Hindu portrayals of that religion. Iyer's outline of Hinduism and central fundamentals of Hindu practice essentializes and sums up according to the limited point of view of an upper-standing Indian Hindu.
The various speculations made about Hindu convictions essentially don't remain constant for by far most of India's lower standings. Iyer doesn't once specify quite possibly the main pundits of Hinduism, B. R. Ambedkar, a Dalit scholarly and protected researcher who drafted India's constitution and composed the incredible book Annihilation of Caste, which shows how Hinduism is established in the settled in chain of importance of the standing framework, which legitimizes the abuse and oppression of those at the base. Iyer's oversight mirrors the more extensive hushing and excusal of Ambedkar by driving Indians, including Gandhi himself, who will not draw in with his rankling scrutinize in light of the fact that possibly they demand that the standing framework addresses the virtuoso of Indian culture or they imagine that it is blurring into unimportance.
A book situated in research about the financial aspects of religion in India in the 21st century that neglects to straightforwardly address the endemic monetary difficulties and primary shameful acts of the position framework likewise addresses the sort of visually impaired advantage held by the upper stations. Iyer's melodious depiction of the Hindu sacred writings and her speculations about Hindu convictions, just as her recollections of singing Christian songs in tuition based schools in India close by Muslim, Christian, Jain, and Sikh young ladies, are exceptionally recognizable to me, as a lady likewise naturally introduced to a favored upper-rank family. The viewpoint of high-positioning standings about what Hinduism is and how it shows across India is predominant in Iyer's book; as a general rule, they include a minuscule part of the absolute populace of India—which Iyer even recognizes in Chapter 6. There is, for instance, no endeavor to explain rehearses like vegetarianism, which Iyer depicts as Hindu however which is a predominantly upper-position practice. Most Dalits and Adivasis eat and partake in the meat, all things considered, including hamburger.
Ambedkar was nearer to reality when he contended for the "untouchables" that "Hinduism is an authentic office of detestations." The measurements of advanced India are a demonstration of this case: According to 2016 information given by the National Crime Records Bureau, wrongdoings against Dalits by non-Dalits have expanded by 746% over a 10-year time span. In 2012, that very year of the horrendous assault of a non-Dalit lady on a transport in Delhi, when metropolitan working class Indians filled the roads to fight her difficulty, 1,574 Dalit ladies across India were assaulted. There were no open walks in India's roads for those ladies, and it is probably a profoundly underreported figure in light of the fact that Dalit ladies are frightened into quietness and dread by upper ranks.
Standing is additionally dispiritingly attached to fundamental financial insights in India. In a country of 1.2 billion individuals, nearly 700 million live in outrageous destitution—an incredible greater part of the individuals from the lowest ranks of India. A greater part of Hindu writings legitimize making lower ranks pay extreme financing costs—the Manusmriti, an antiquated Hindu lawful sacred text, pronounces that the least standing (Shudra) and the Dalit people group ought to be charged 60% or more in yearly premium on advances. This training, thus, has added to the significant degrees of current subjection in India on the grounds that the writings interest "real premium" when money is inaccessible, which implies that individuals from lower stations are required to work for the moneylender or landowner from one age to another to reimburse obligations. As even Iyer makes reference to, many years after freedom, upper-station Hindus keep on overwhelming foundations of advanced education in India. In a new rundown of Forbes tycoons, in excess of 55 Indians were referenced—the abundance of the best 10 surpasses the 45 underneath them. Of these 10, seven come from a specific standing of brokers—Vaishyas—and the excess 45 are a blend of other upper stations of India, just as a couple of Muslims and Parsees (both address minority religions in India). There is certainly not a solitary Dalit or Adivasi on the list.
The Economics of Religion in India is both opportune and profoundly significant in its investigation of the powers at play in India that uncover the inseparable associations among financial matters and religion. Simply take the July 2018 New York Times Magazine highlight on tycoon Baba Ramdev, a strict pioneer and an effective financial specialist whose organization, Patanjali Ayurved, had deals of $1.6 billion in the 2018 monetary year regardless of his contemptuous assertions against Muslims in India, including his danger to "guillotine many thousands," as a valid example. In trying to comprehend the elements around financial matters and religion when Hindu fundamentalism is on the ascent, be that as it may, Iyer's book leaves one wanting for more noteworthy subtlety and point of view on the genuine powers of history behind the latest things. All things being equal, she in some cases presents assessment as reality, for example, her affirmation that "Hindu fundamentalism is a response to secularization by the British Empire and the Congress Movement and to the danger from different religions like Islam and Christianity and to Western qualities addressed by the British Empire." In her work to discuss financial matters, Iyer chances on limiting the mind-boggling purposes for specific turns of events, like the development of Hindu fundamentalism. It is risky to pin it on expansive, brief, and, basically in her book, unexamined reasons—going right back to the British Empire, the Independence Movement drove by the Congress, and saw dangers from Islam and Christianity and Western qualities.
2(B) Trust of Foreign countries & Investors in Social Stability of India;
India stays a country that is trusting of its foundations, as indicated by the 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer. While trust slipped across the establishments of government, media and NGOs, trust in business was unaltered. India stayed in the high trust area, even with the abatement. With a total 13-point decrease in trust in the four organizations, India was among the six business sectors that accomplished outrageous trust misfortunes this year. Notwithstanding, this drop in trust is impressively not exactly the 37-point decrease recorded in the United States.
India is among the most trusted countries universally with regards to government, business, NGOs and media yet the nation's brands are among the most untrusted, as per a report. A couple of months prior, this segment had contended that the tech battle between the United States and China is being battled across an adaptable, permeable bamboo drape, and India's inclinations lie in avoiding the Sinosphere while making circles or air pockets of trust "with the US, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Singapore and South Korea that will help Indian organizations, experts and buyers wind up around and around of chance." Even if political changes all throughout the planet revive interest in multilateral ways to deal with world exchange, innovation and environmental change, New Delhi should focus on developing associations with its international partners (there, I gave the signal). Like air rises for worldwide travel during the pandemic, first make air pockets of trust reciprocally with key accomplices and afterward investigate whether these can combine into bigger air pockets that incorporate more nations.
New Delhi should zero in on four regions: Strengthen international combinations, increment confidence in one another's legal frameworks, extend monetary ties, and lift other nations' confidence in one's residents. Every one of the four are important to make air pockets of trust. China's ascent and Beijing's authoritative conduct has sped up international combinations among India, the United States, Australia and Japan. In every one of these nations, the prevailing political slant considers China to be a contender, bad guy or danger. This pattern is probably not going to switch any time soon, regardless of whether post-political race Washington connects with—or is contacted by—Beijing trying to capture the developing gap in their relations. To the degree that the Quad nations, alongside Vietnam, Germany, France, and Britain, structure a balancing alliance against China, international affairs will set out open doors for New Delhi to expand on the other three fronts.
Dissimilar to international relations where governments are the fundamental entertainers, it is firms and people that decide confidence in each others' legal frameworks. The two insights and encounters matter. On the off chance that financial backers, brokers and organizations see India's equity framework as one-sided or untrustworthy, the negative discernment won't just sabotage monetary choices yet shading the legislative issues too. India's political chiefs, policymakers and judges need to do some spirit looking on this record. It is a certain something if the legal framework is over-burden and its lower rungs experience the ill effects of defilement. It is totally another if fundamental matters, for example, the requirement of even billion-dollar business contracts can't be underestimated. We ought to be cautioned that the altruism of our international accomplices won't suffer if their organizations become displeased or even uninterested in the Indian economy. However much New Delhi should demand that Indian organizations are dealt with reasonably by controllers and courts in our accomplice nations, it should guarantee that we appropriately respond.
The geo-monetary inquiry is this: To what degree can individual vital accomplices, or for instance the Quad in general, substitute China as an exchanging accomplice? This is significantly less to supplant China, yet to oversee reliance on it. China, all things considered, is the greatest exchange accomplice for the greater part of the Quad nations. Every single one of them imports more from China than from the other three. It is a superior scene in sends out, where, other than Australia, which is exceptionally reliant upon fares to China, the other three nations trade more inside the Quad than to China. Without a doubt, the financial strength of the Quad as of now comes from the fact that the United States is the greatest fare market for Japan and India. India is the most fragile exporter in the Quad and has a lot of work to do in boosting fares to Japan and Australia. As Mukesh Aghi, leader of the US-India Strategic Partnership Forum proposed in August, it is a smart thought to begin dealing with a special exchange of understanding among the Quad nations.
The trickiest part in shaping air pockets of trust is in the development of individuals across public limits. The moderately open mentality towards movement that we found during the 1990s and 2000s has changed. Critical public hatred in the United States and Australia against the high speed of movement is justifiable, however it remains a reality that liberal migration strategies fueled their new thriving. A maturing Japan should accommodate the segment challenge to its monetary prosperity. As an exporter of migrants, India offers its international accomplices a chance to address their convergence situations. Perspectives towards migrants are shaded by activities of people, so it is to India's greatest advantage for its exiles to be really useful, faithful, decent and acclimatized occupants of the nations they live in. This is something that Indian foreigners have done above and beyond the previous quite a few years, and fresher ones would do well to follow.
Air pockets are delicate things that need cautious taking care of and along these lines a reasonable analogy to ponder the connections of trust that India works with its accomplices. We are asking nations in the Quad and past to trust us with their cash, protected innovation, information and the security of their most touchy PC frameworks. How well we make and keep up with air pockets of trust will decide the degree to which Indian organizations and residents can misuse open doors in our current reality where legislative issues vigorously impact financial matters.
The 2019 Edelman Trust Barometer report delivered Monday, in front of the World Economic Forum (WEF) meet here, noticed that the Global Trust Index saw a negligible increment of 3 focuses to 52. China beat the Trust Index among both the educated public and everybody sections, with scores of 79 and 88 individually. India was at the runner up in the educated public classification and third spot in everyone's class. The Index is the normal percent of confidence in NGOs, business, government and media. The discoveries depend on an online study in 27 business sectors covering more than 33,000 respondents. The hands-on work was directed between October 19 and November 16, 2018. As far as confidence in organizations settled in each market, the most trusted are those from Switzerland, Germany and Canada. The brands from these nations have a trust score of 70 each while that of Japan is 69%. In any case, organizations settled in India, Mexico and Brazil are the most untrusted, followed by China and South Korea, according to the report. While the score of India and Brazil is 40%, that of Mexico and China remained at 36% and 41 percent, individually. The report noticed that there is a developing inclination of cynicism about the future, with just one-in-three mass populace respondents in the created world accepting their family would be lucky to be in the following five years. Among the mass populace, only one-in-five accept the framework is working for them and 70 percent want change. Also, regardless of a full-business economy, dread of occupation misfortune stays high among everyone.
This depends on perspectives of respondents about worldwide organizations settled in explicit nations and how much these organizations are trusted by them 'to make the wisest decision'. As per the report, internationally 'my boss' is essentially more trusted than NGOs, business, government and media. "The last decade has seen a deficiency of confidence in customary position figures and organizations," said Richard Edelman, president and CEO of Edelman. With regards to solid hotspots for news, search and conventional are among the most trusted. Search and conventional media have a score of 66 each, while the score of online media is 44%, the report noted. "73% stress over bogus data or phony news being utilized as a weapon," it added. Stephen Kehoe, worldwide seat, Reputation at Edelman said that different degrees of certainty between the mass populace and educated public about the future sign a kept basic decay in the construction of society. "While not every person is rampaging, the information shows why fights like the Gilet Jaunes in France, the ladies' walks in India and walkouts by representatives at some significant tech organizations could turn out to be more standard," Kehoe said.
2(C) Self-sustainability and education in India;
Education is an important asset of information. It works with the nature of learning all for the duration of our lives. It is indeed a total comprehensive maintainable instruction framework that establishes the framework of our insight, character and morals. These likewise assume a crucial part in our general turn of events and the advancement of our general public all in all.
Current educational program Of Education In India
In 1835, Lord Macaulay acquired the cutting edge schooling framework India which caused understudies to go up against one another to demonstrate them better. It likewise made them a piece of a futile daily existence without really acquiring abilities and life exercises. Along these lines, instead of granting decent comprehensive schooling, the cutting edge framework is centered around the lines of commercialization of training even today. We are following one severe educational plan for all understudies regardless of their characters, life viewpoints and vocation ways.
Be that as it may, today we have a marginally better educational plan and lessons given to understudies. Additionally, the most recent changes made in the Education Policy 2020 is a much needed development for the Indian schooling framework. The new Education Policy endeavors towards making schooling accessible to all. It additionally incorporates a mix of scholastics and extracurricular for the general character improvement of a youngster. In any case, we are as yet in the beginning phases of teaching our youngsters on all upsides of life, culture, congruity and care.
Natural Education In India;
In 2003, Environmental instruction was made mandatory in proper training in India through a Supreme Court administering. Along these lines, natural instruction is presently granted in many schools and universities in India. In any case, we are as yet in the beginning phases of teaching our youngsters on manageable turn of events. The objective of maintainable training is to support and connect with the youthful age in real life based acquiring and ability improvement. It additionally helps in creating eco-cognizant and reasonably disapproved of individuals. This youthful age will thus push us all towards a superior and practical future.
Why should we really focus on Sustainable Education?
The United Nations (UN) is the world's biggest intergovernmental association established in 1945. It unites world pioneers from 193 part states to face different interconnected worldwide difficulties. It is additionally a middle for fitting the activities of countries and has laid out all inclusive objectives and targets.
The Sustainable Development Goals, are indeed, an assortment of seventeen objectives set out by the United Nations to be accomplished by 2030 to accomplish a superior practical future for all. These objectives are coordinated towards finishing destitution, imbalance, environmental change and harmony for all. In this way, every country on the planet is mindful to accomplish these plans.
Reasonable Development Goals 2030
Beneath you can track down a total rundown of all objectives which have set focuses to be refined by 2030 –
Good health and well-being
Clean water and sanitation
Affordable and clean energy
decent work and Economic growth
Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
Sustainable cities and communities
Responsible consumption and production
Life below water
Life on land
Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
The Gurukul education system is an immortal part of our country’s rich traditions and cultural heritage. It is indeed one of the most valued and famous education and life learning systems practiced in ancient India.
A Gurukul is a residential education system in India which dates back to 5000 BC. Under this system, all are considered as equals and no fee is charged. The Shishyas or students are taught life lessons and a cultured way of life in natural surroundings. Also, humanity, love, peace and discipline are essential components of the Gurukul education.
In Gurukuls, teachings for all subjects, practical learning, self-learning and extra curricular are provided. These teachings are imparted by the Gurus to develop the intellect and personality of the students. Body wellness and positivity is also given equal importance. Gurukuls help us in living a content and peaceful life through meditation, yoga asanas and by chanting mantras.
Apart from education, the students are also supposed to do all other day-to-day work by themselves which makes them independent.
Sustainable Education Lessons from Gurukuls
So, all these life lessons and Gurukul Vidya help the Shishyas in:
Developing their thoughts about life, happiness and humanity.
Focus on life and career through holistic education.
Sense of discipline.
Respect for elders, Gurus and nature.
Being self-sustainable and self-sufficient.
Developing intellect and thoughtfulness.
Respect for nature, animals, human beings.
Critical thinking and thoughtful decision making.
This shows the beauty of our Gurukul education which focuses on applied knowledge, practical learning and personality development. It also emphasizes thoughtfulness, respect for planetary boundaries, social equality and justice. This Sustainable Gurukul Education system prepares the Shishyas in all aspects of life in future.
Despite the fact that people in India now prefer the new age curriculum and private school education, there are still a few Bal Gurukuls operated by the Indian Development Foundation – a national NGO in India. They are involved in empowering and transforming the child with better holistic education. You can find the complete list of Bal Gurukuls/Empowerment programmes in India in the ‘References’ section at the end.
With the current degradation and exploitation of our ecosystem, it has now become extremely necessary to include environmental studies. Environmental education has to be included as a part of school curriculum. It helps by engaging the children from a very young age in sustainable living practices. Therefore, we need a new age curriculum for our children which teaches and inspires them to live in harmony with nature.
Apart from an eco-curriculum, we also need better teaching and studying practices which enables students to develop their skills to face the world that lays ahead.
3. India’s First Environmental School
Here I would like to tell you about the launch of India’s first Environmental school in the South of India by Moebius Foundation. This World Environmental School will be the first eco-school in India and South Asia. The school will focus on imparting environmental education that prepares the students for a sustainable future. It is built on the core philosophy of sustainability and will impart a balanced combination of new-age education, personal skills, extra curricular and overall sustainable development. This in turn will help nourish the social, physical, emotional and psychological aspects and well-being of a student.
In the 21st century the United Nations’(UN) decade of ‘Education for Sustainable Development’ (UNDESD) (2005- 2014) significantly highlighted the vital role of education that can and must play in the universal journey towards sustainable development across the globe and saving our planet. In September 2015, the UN formally adopted the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) as an outcome of a major global consultative process. UNDESD advocates for providing the opportunity to progress towards implementing universal quality education that fosters the knowledge, skills, perspectives, values and actions that lead towards a more sustainable future. The ‘Sustainable Development Goal 4’ (SDG4) recommends for quality education for all which has deep roots in may international declarations, i.e., ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’, ‘Convention on Rights of the Child’, ‘World declaration on Education for All’, ‘Dakar Framework for Action’, ‘Millennium Development Goals’; thus considers education as very crucial for the wellbeing of individuals, nations and the world (UNESCO, 2005). Considering education as a key driver for ‘Sustainable Development Goals’ (ESDG) many international conferences were organized with the aim of bringing together global experience and expertise to highlight and strengthen the role of education in realizing the SDGs; creating an opportunity to build upon the learning from UNDESD and recognizing education as a key enabler. While realizing the SDGs all across the globe increasingly the emphasis has been shifted from a solely economic perspective to a larger view of development that includes three pillars i.e., environmental, social and economic sustainability (People, Planet, Profit). Moreover, this is also recognized that policy instruments or technological solutions are not going to be enough for achieving SDGs; rather behavioral change and public awareness are very crucial for sustainable development. Therefore, the role of education and its outreach programs such as training and capacity building, communication, creating public awareness, scientific and applied research, sharing and access to information, networking, partnerships etc. become the key strategies for achieving the SDGs. The SDG4 proposes equal and inclusive education for all that is closely linked to the effective implementation of SDG 16 which focuses on the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies and most relevantly, on building effective and accountable institutions at all levels. SDG 4 advocates to ‘ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’ ; thus keeps the target that by 2030 all boys and girls to complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning-outcomes ; also to ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development through education for sustainable lifestyles, human rights , gender equality , global citizenship and promoting a culture of peace and brotherhood. However, within the educational community the focus has been shifted from access to equitable quality education to lifelong learning, strengthened training and 21st century skills for work and life and improved learning outcomes at all levels of education (Anderson, 2014; UNESCO and UNICEF, 2013). New challenges to learning are emerging and 21st century education must address these and contribute to greater humanity in a rapidly changing world (UNESCO, 2015). In recent past Redecker et al. (2011) have identified six key challenges such as – 1. multicultural integration, immigration and refugee problems, 2. early school dropout and unemployment, 3. fostering smart economy and innovation, 4. removing the barrier between the world of work and education, 5. preparing the skilled manpower for the labor market, 6. permanent re-skilling and updating the competencies International Journal of Development and of all citizens. Therefore, we have to update our curricula, pedagogy and educational resources to address the 21st century challenges. The key drivers of sustainable education or education for sustainable development would be able to answer three fundamental questions: Q1.How much learning the students are actually experiencing in schools? , Q2. What information and skills shall they need to succeed in the future? Q3. How can those gains be expanded for progressive and sustainable planet? (Scott, 2015). Dellor’s (1996) four principles of learning and framework are relevant even today in the 21st century for achieving quality and learning outcomes. These four pillars of education are: a. learning to know, b. learning to do, c. learning to be, and d. learning to live together. For achieving sustainable development goals there is a critical need for universal access to quality education and visionary leadership (Cisco system, 2009, p.3). The ‘Sustainable development goal on education’ for 2030 targets to ‘ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’, based on four focused areas : 1. expanded access to quality learning for all across the various levels of education, 2. attention to the quality of education including content, relevance and learning outcomes across the disciplines , 3. greater focus on equity for access and resources of education, 4. gender equality across all levels of education with safe and supportive learning environments ( Scott,2015). Sustainable development is a process that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission report on Environment and Development ,1987); thus, sustainability is a paradigm for thinking about our future in which environmental, societal and economic considerations are balanced in the pursuit of improved quality of life and development. Till date the concept ‘Sustainable Education’ has been interchangeably used with ‘sustainability education’, ‘quality education for sustainable development’ or ‘education for sustainability’ as identified by UNESCO’s SDG 4 out of 17 SD goals. Over the years researchers have interpreted this in different ways according to their own justifications and research framework. Very recently (UNESCO, 2018) ‘Education for Sustainable Development’ (ESD) is placed at the centre of the 2030 ‘Sustainable Development Agenda’ and has been widely acknowledged as a key enabler of all17 SD goals (besides SDG4 - Quality Education for all). Sustainable education has been considered as renewable resources to be geared towards the acquisition of key competences of the 21st century including sustainable lifestyles, work and habitat (Bronden, 2015). In order to achieve this we need to have a robust and sustainable education system based on SD policies, practices, curriculum, pedagogy and continuing education for all stakeholders; thus ESD requires far-reaching changes to the way education functions in modern society. How to structure and implement quality education for sustainable development is a key challenge for every country?; additionally how to assess its performance effectiveness and impact on society. As a answer to this query Ofei-Manu and Didham (2014) advocated for a policy framework called ‘ESD Learning Performance Framework’(ESD-LPF) that could address these challenges by identifying the key ESD factors i.e., educational contents, learning processes and incorporating into educational development model through an integrated and holistic framework. According to them, even though the core educational principles of quality education are universal, its application must be adapted to different contexts as the measure of educational success depends on variable criteria; at the core of this pursuit the focus should be on strengthening learning performance and providing the learners with competences and capabilities to address the challenges of a sustainable future for all. As per UNESCO SD goals the ESD contents cover diverse disciplines i.e., climate change, energy, poverty reduction, consumption etc covering many interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary issues; thus, requires a holistic approach to understand the complexity of SD (Venkatraman, 2009, Vare, Scott, 2007). Literature on ESD also emphasizes to include triple bottom-line dimensions (social, economic and environmental) and to focus on interrelationships and interactions among them over time and space (Summers, 2007, Gough, 2002). Often socio-cultural factors are the cause of environmental problems resulting in conflict of interests in SD goals of these three dimensions (Borg et al., 2014; Tilbury, 2012). Thus, ESD focuses on a pedagogy called ‘Pluralism’ to acknowledge and develop skills and action competences to deal with these critical issues of sustainable development (Rudsberg and Ohman, 2010). Even today the educational content, curricula and pedagogy for ESD are not well rooted in the existing school systems in many countries (Madsen, 2013). Santone et al. (2014) have introduced a new paradigm called ‘Education for sustainability’ (EfS) to educate new prospective teachers through (teaching, learning and developing) collective problem solving skills to address critical environmental, social, economic issues and transfer these EfS proficiency to K-12 students (through content knowledge, skills, behaviors and dispositions). Australian researchers Reynolds and Cavanagh (2009) introduced educational sustainability in terms of ‘sustainability quotients’ that can be applied to many forms of sustainability and about the balance between availability of resources and consumption; also discussed epistemological, methodological and organizational dimensions of ‘educational sustainability’. Ofei-Manu and Didham (2014, IGES) have tried to integrate ESD perspectives in the ‘Quality Education’ programme /process through LPF (Learning performance framework) and a holistic approach. There are two pedagogical interpretations of ESD; the ESD as a means to transfer appropriate sets of knowledge, attitudes and values to the learner and the second one is to equip people with the needed capacity to make conscious, pro-sustainability choices in their daily lives, to collectively explore the issues to transform the mind-sets and lifestyles through collective discourse (UNESCO, 2009). Therefore, the ESD integrated quality education system with measurable learning targets and outcomes to become a cornerstone of the post 2014 ‘Global Action Programme’ on ESD and 2015 SDGs (UNESCO) as a pathway for global education reform and improvement. Many developed countries have even gone beyond that i.e., Japan, South Korea, Australia, Sweden, Ireland etc. However, in Asia-Pacific region, the application of innovative curriculum, content, progressive pedagogy, sustainability – oriented teaching materials, practice standards, monitoring and auditing mechanisms for ESD teachings are very much required (Didham and OfeiManu, 2012). Bangladesh has tried to address the question “How can education play a role in promoting sustainable development?” through three methods – 1- Education about sustainable development (SD) 2- Education for SD; 3- Critical education towards SD (Shohel and Howes, 2011). Madsen (2013) has tried to address the issues of multidimensionality and complexity of ESD and how the teachers would teach such topics through real life examples in school context. The Belgium researchers (Pauw et al. 2015) have advocated for enhancing the students’ ‘sustainability consciousness’ by the school teachers to get the desirable ESD learning outcomes. Branden (2012) has suggested for a whole education system reform through some sustainable strategies for policy makers and insists upon Fullan’s (2011) four drivers a) Intrinsic motivation b) Instructional improvements c) Team work d) Allness /100 % result to foster sustainable education at all levels across the dimensions (socio, economic and environmental). More recently, UNESCO report (2018) advocates for ESD to play an active role (in every country) across the globe to empower all learners to take informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability and a just society for present and future generations , while respecting cultural diversity( Leicht et al., 2018). Thus, it calls for a major reform in education systems of all countries to promote holistic and transformational education that would address learning content and outcomes, innovative pedagogy and ‘learning by doing’ and use a whole-school approach to engage communities in achieving sustainable change. Currently UNESCO is the lead agency as recognized by UN General Assembly Resolution 70/209 in 2015, recommends ESD to be placed at the centre of the 2030 ‘Sustainable Development Agenda’ and to act as key enabler for all the 17 SDGs including SDG 4 – quality education aiming towards how to live and work sustainability. Additionally, the ‘Global Action Programme’ (GAP) aims to generate and scale up ESD actions at all levels and disciplines / areas of education, training and learning; also, to focus on inter-SDG collaboration for accelerating the reorientation of education towards achieving a sustainable world and resilient planet. 2. Current status of Indian education system Since Independence, successive Indian governments have addressed number of key challenges in education by introducing new educational policies and schemes as a part of its development agenda i.e., ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’, ‘Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan’, ‘Right to free & compulsory Education Act’ etc. However, as per the ‘British Council India’ report (2014) [ ] the current Indian education system (K – 12, school education) is guided by different objectives and goals but primarily based on the policies of yesteryears. Despite the new educational schemes and policies the mean years of schooling i.e., 5.12 years is well below the other emerging market economies like China (8.17 years) and Brazil (7.54 years) and significantly below the average of other developing countries (7.09 years). Moreover, steep dropout rates after primary and middle school level and decreasing enrolment in higher secondary level are matters of deep concern; additionally, the dropout rates among disadvantaged communities (Scheduled caste and Tribes) are higher than the national average. Besides, these high pupil – teacher ratio (1 : 38) in rural areas, lack of professionally trained and motivated teachers, poor quality of teaching and learning resulting in weak learning outcomes are the major challenges faced by Indian school education system today. According to “Annual Status of Education Report (2013) [ ]” only 26% grade 5 children could do simple division, 21% could read a simple paragraph; in case of grade 3 students this dropped to only 7% (division) and 19% (Reading). In 2009 only, India participated in PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) and ranked as 73rd position out of 74 participating nations. There is a huge deficit of trained / qualified teachers (approx. 5 Lakhs) in the school sector across the country. There is a huge supply - demand gap between the number of students of school going age and number of students actually going to school (2016). There is a prominent quality gap between govt. and private schools; poor quality of teaching and learning in govt. schools are driving away students from govt. to private schools, subsequently increasing the enrollment by 31% in private schools (Annual Status Edn. Report, 2014). In addition to this Govt.’s inefficiency in implementation of ‘Right to Education Act’, insufficient public spending on school education, poor quality of teaching, out-dated pedagogy, lack of action research on school education, poor International Journal of Development and Sustainability Vol. 7 No. 9 (2018): 2242-2255 ISDS www.isdsnet.com 2247 monitoring, evaluation, feedbacks and reforms are the cumulative reasons of unsustainable school education in India(2016). Very recently in 2016(April) the MHRD, Govt. of India’s committee for the “Evolution of New Education Policy” has suggested for many reforms i.e., quality education, equality in access to all educational resources and quality teaching but failed to draw a framework for sustainable school education in India. There is no uniformity in the school curriculum of different boards of education or in teacher preparation programme/s across the country. Even the ‘Voluntary National Review Report’ of Govt. of India presented in the “High Level Political Forum” on Sustainable Development, New York held in July , 2017, has highlighted only on seven out of UNESCO’s 17 sustainable goals(2015) i.e. , SD1 (No poverty), SDG2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 3 (Good Health and well-being), SDG 5 (Gender equality), SDG 9 (Industry, innovation, infrastructure), SDG 14 (Life below water), and SDG 17 (Global partnership for sust. Devpt.) ignoring the most vital and core one SDG 4 – “To ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all”. The present Indian govt. has also introduced various schemes (Yojnas) through planning commission (NITI Ayog) and implemented with great slogans but failed to develop a strong foundation, nor a sustainable framework for international standard public education system in Indian schools ; only inviting the foreign universities to collaborate with Indian universities or opening their offshore branch for internship, academic and research programs would never enrich the foundation of our school education. As a result mushrooming private schools, International schools with smart classrooms, ICT based content and educational packages are coming up which serve the purpose of some elite and affluent section of population, thus creates a huge gap in the standard of education between govt. and private schools; thus increases the diversity / inequality in education and employment sector. If it continues like that it would create havoc in the business and Indian job market in near future. Moreover, there is no awareness, nor education for sustainable consumption, lifestyle and habitat for sustainable growth and security of our future generations. These above-mentioned facts and thoughts have prompted the present authors to make an effort in drawing / designing a base-line conceptual model for school education at the primary level / grass root level in India. After receiving the feedback from different intellectual forums and action research it can be modified and tried out at policy implementation level. Way back in 2001, Sterling [ ] defined ‘sustainable education’ as a “change of educational culture that develops and embodies the theory and practice of sustainability”; thus it is a transformative paradigm which values, sustains and realizes human potential in order to attain sustainable economic, social and environmental goals. Therefore, sustainable education logically necessitates a deep learning response in educational policy, thinking, content and practice. In Indian context few research work and practices are going on in the areas of sustainable environment, sustainable energy etc. but we need a paradigm shift to create an education culture and ecosystem that implies systematic change in education policy and system, in the thinking and practice of every stakeholder linked to Indian education system. Hence, we have to draw a systematic plan / blueprint out of this existing complex and diversified education system and drive it with a holistic vision. As the “triple bottom line” framework is a widely adopted model in other domains of sustainable development goals, the present authors assume that the ‘people – planet - profit’ (socio – economic - environmental) framework would be appropriate to accommodate the complexities and diversities of Indian education system. Thus, the “Sustainable Education” based on this framework would imply the basic components i.e., educational policy and practices to be sustaining and quality oriented, would enhance the competencies and motivations of teachers, teacher educators, students, administrators and other stakeholders in the community and enrich the socio-environmental ecosystem of the educational institutions to deliver the desirable goals and sustainable outcomes as well. UNESCO Report (2002) has very strictly pointed out/ advocated that just as we have learnt to live unsustainably, we now need to learn how to live sustainably. Such learning requires us to unlearn certain things, to relearn and take responsibility for our educational systems, institutions and educators to develop competencies in order to address the 21st century’s challenges and resolve sustainability. Moreover, in the context of UNESCO (2015) sustainable goals, when we are mapping the existing Indian educational policies and status, we could find a number of critical issues, contextual challenges, and loopholes. In the research literature on Indian School education we could find plenty of action research and empirical work on economy, social development, agriculture environment, entrepreneurship and so on, but rarely on sustainable education policy reform. Lot of work has been done in the area of comparative education in comparing the education system of different countries, but here our focus is to design a sustainable education model at the grass-root level keeping in mind the diversities, complexities and constraints in India.
Chapter 3: Infrastructure, Strategic Stronghold and International diplomatic involvement;
3(A) Infrastructure as vital player attracting major investments;
According to a report by NDTV India on 6th May 2021, ‘External affairs minister Dr. S Jaishankar held bilateral discussions on May 6th 2021, with his UK counterpart, Dominic Raab, which focussed on both sides implementing an ambitious '2030 Roadmap' of the India-UK Enhanced Trade Partnership (ETP) to pave the way for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Following which, British Trade Secretary Liz Truss and Commerce and Industry Minister Piyush Goyal signed the UK-India Enhanced Trade Partnership (ETP) agreement, aimed at doubling bilateral trade by 2030.
Free trade deal is a bilateral or multilateral sign between two or more countries which is generally aimed to improve exports and imports by decreasing the trade barriers. Tariffs are decreased and trade is promoted through all channels in such a deal. This deal for India holds major potential as it will significantly boost the economy within the next few years. There can be a large number of benefits of the FTA. It will not only promote more trade between the nations boosting economy but will also generate employment. It will also create immediate opportunities in both the countries. Such steps can play a pivotal role in shaping and preparing India for a big push which can be generated through Infrastructure development.
India’s Infrastructure historically has been always considered inadequate and poor. Infrastructure can play a key role in attracting foreign investment and fostering economic growth. Infrastructure is one of the major factors depending on which Investors decide whether to invest in a country. To overcome this,, India in past few years has been constantly working towards the development of Infrastructure. The Government of India has laid stone for various large scale or Mega scale infrastructure projects which will help India attract more Foreign Investment.
3(B) Recent Infrastructural Projects;
The Delhi Mumbai Industrial corridor that stretches from the Capital of the country, Delhi, to the Financial hub Mumbai, is one of such mega scale infrastructure projects which is currently under construction being developed to improve infrastructure in the country. The Delhi Mumbai Industrial corridor will consist of Rail Lines, air connectivity, & Fast road connectivity through Super Fast Highways. It will also parallelly develop smart cities, and power projects along the way. Ports will also be developed enhancing the current capacity and capability of the trade corridor in India. Several more corridors between Amritsar-Delhi-Kolkata, Mumbai-Bengaluru, Bengaluru-Chennai and Chennai-Visakhapatnam are being developed in full fledge so as to drastically transform the face of India infrastructure. These projects along with other infrastructural projects will develop a Golden Quadrilateral between Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai-Kolkata.
This golden quadrilateral will improve connectivity which will allow the country’s business to prosper. According to an Economic Times report on January 10th 2021, “Speaking at the 16th annual conference on 'Road Development in India' Gadkari said, ‘My aim is to construct 60,000 km of the world-class national highway by 2024, at the rate of 40 km per day. India is about 63 lakh kilometres of the road network, which is the second-largest in the world. Road infrastructure plays a critical role in the growth of the Indian economy.”
India is also pursuing a 75 Billion Dollar National road and highway programme called Bharatmala Programme, the Delhi-Mumbai, Delhi-Amritsar, katra and ganga Expressway, Chaar dham express way. The Indian Government claims that this is a stepping stone towards new India. According to the official website of the Government, “The development of any nation depends on the transportation networks and the ways in which they are being maintained. The same holds true for the development of a huge and populous nation like India. For connecting the areas and maintaining smooth flow of traffic, the construction of new and developed roads are a must. The same will be achieved with the implementation of the Bharatmala project. Under the scheme, a host of new roads will be laid down in the nation. Bharatmala Pariyojana is a new umbrella program for the highways sector that focuses on optimizing efficiency of freight and passenger movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through effective interventions like development of Economic Corridors, Inter Corridors and Feeder Routes, National Corridor Efficiency Improvement, Border and International connectivity roads, Coastal and Port connectivity roads and Green-field expressways.”
India has also created Sagarmala, a 116$ Billion programme to build new mega ports, improve the current ones, and establish 14 coastal economic zones. The trivandrum International sea port which is currently under construction is part of this programme. Sagarmala is an ambitious national initiative aimed at bringing about a step change in India’s logistics sector performance, by unlocking the full potential of India’s coastline and waterways. The vision of Sagarmala is to reduce logistics cost for both domestic and EXIM cargo with optimized infrastructure investment. Sagarmala aspires to reduce logistics costs for EXIM and domestic cargo leading to overall cost savings of INR 35,000 to 40,000 cr. per annum.
Some of this will be direct cost savings, while others are savings from inventory-handling costs resulting from time (and reduced variability) in transportation of goods, particularly containers. These cost savings apply to current industrial capacities as well as future coastal proximate capacities for energy, material, marine and discrete industries that could come up through port-linked industrialization. In addition, Sagarmala aspires to reduce carbon emissions from the transportation sector by 12.5 MT/annum.