• Stambh Organization

INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE


ABSTRACT

Intimate partner violence is one of the major public health concerns. Study shows that more than physical damage it damages the person mentally. Thus in this study, we will analyze the reason behind this problem between the couple and how to prevent this, what are the side effects of this problem and how does it affects the children, and different laws which are there in our constitution which can directly or indirectly help to reduce IPV. According to the study social support, help-seeking behavior and the availability of community-based services address the issue of abuse as the main protective factors. The risk factors are related to economic condition, ethnic minority, cognitive or physical impairment, other conditions related to cultural background and relationship dynamics.


INTRODUCTION

An intimate partner relationship is a behavior within an intimate relationship that leads to

physical, emotional, or mental damage to any of the partners. It is one of the most common types of violence towards women by their intimate partners. Here Intimate partner refers to a Husband or any man as such with whom the woman is in a physical relationship. Intimate Partner Violence includes physical, mental, emotional, and sexual abuse and controlling behavior by their intimate partners. Women also are violent in relationships at times and violence can be there in same-sex relationships too but generally, men partners or ex-partners are violent in relationships. IPV is different from domestic violence. Domestic Violence includes physical, sexual or emotional, or any kind of hurt due to any family member or anyone in the family but IPV is just for intimate partners. Almost 50% of cases are violent against women.


BACKGROUND

When we talk about crime against women this topic is not mentioned in most of the places as this includes crime against both but mentioning this topic of crime against women under this research paper is that although it can be both-sided generally or almost the ones who are facing this are women. They are being tortured by their male counterparts.


KEYWORDS

Intervention, Intimate Partner Violence, Outcomes, Screening, Typologies


INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE ALL AROUND THE WORLD

According to the multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women which collected data for IPV from more than 24000 women in 10 countries representing a diverse cultural, geographical, and urban-rural setting prevalence of IPV is evident in the study. The study confirmed that IPV is widespread in all countries studied among women who have ever been in an intimate partner relationship.

13–61% reported ever having experienced physical violence by a partner;

4–49% reported having experienced severe physical violence by a partner;

6–59% reported sexual violence by a partner at some point in their lives; and

20–75% reported experiencing one emotionally abusive act, or more, from a partner in their

lifetime IPV not only affects men in formal relationships but also affects adolescents girls in informal a relationship such as ‘ dating relationships’.


TYPOLOGIES OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

IPV can be classified on different bases:-

First on the basis of severity of the crime, On the basis of severity of the crime IPV is classified into three types:-

1. Level 1 abuse includes pushing, throwing, grabbing objects hotting etc

2. Level 2 abuse includes kicking, biting, and slapping

3. Level 3 abuse includes the use of weapons, chocking, etc

Second on the basis of different forms of violence, On the basis of different forms of violence

IPV is of three types:-

1. Instill terrorism / Patriarchal terrorism - This is basically the act by the male partner to

dominate the female partner and instill fear.

2. Violent resistance - The act in which one partner tries to save herself the chances of injuring the other partner is more.

3. Situational couple violence/ Common couple violence - The situation in which arguments are bidirectional, the intensity of violence is low.

The third is on the basis of types of male batterers, On the basis of male batterers IPV of three types:-

1. Family-only batterers include the least marital violence and be the least likely to involve in

sexual or psychological abuse.

2. Dysphoric/ Borderline batterers - They are moderately involved in abuse towards their wife

including sexual or psychological abuse.

3. Violent /antisocial batterers - They are involved in severe violence. Engage in most of the

drugs-related problems and legal problems.


WHY DON’T WOMEN LEAVE ABUSIVE PARTNERS?


According to the study, it has been shown that most women are not passive victims as they take actions to protect their children and themselves. Their actions are always calculated as they have to think about themselves and their children’s future. There are few reasons why women stay in violent relationships. They are:-

1. Lack of economic support

Women are not economically independent in most households so it is difficult for them to leave their husbands.

2. Concern for their children

As women are not economically independent in most of the household so it will be dangerous for

their children’s future if they leave their husbands.

3. Lack of support from family and friends.

In this patriarchal society if a woman does not have a men’s support it is very difficult for a

woman to survive.

4. Stigma or fear of losing custody of children after divorce.

5. Fear of retaliation

6. Change of behavior of the partner.

Despite all of these many women leave their partners but still, there is a large number of women who stay with their partners. There are women too who don’t leave their partners completely but they choose to leave for a night. Some women leave for few days. Completely leaving a partner for violence is still not seen much as there are factors that stop women from doing the same. But a large number of women are there who are raising their voice against this and for themselves.

But still, some women don’t know about their rights against violence.


RELEVANT LEGISLATION IN INDIA.


There are certain rights given by our constitution to protect the dignity of oneself directly or

indirectly.

First is part III of the constitution which states fundamental rights including the right to life

which is the right to live with dignity and free from violence.

Second the dowry prohibition Act of 1961 and the Dowry prohibition Amendment Acts of 1984 and 1986.

Third section 498 of Indian Penal Code 1983.

Fourth in 1986 section 304B was added to IPC. It holds women’s husbands and in-laws

responsible for the death of women under suspicious circumstances within 7 years of marriage.

Fifth is In 2005 the parliament passed the Protection of women from domestic violence act. It allows women to seek an injunction and protective orders. It offers the criminal provision of imprisonment and fines which comes into play when a perpetrator breaches a civil order. It covers all women in an abusive relationship regardless of the relationship of perpetrators.

These are some important provisions and law which are made by parliament or are mentioned in the constitution but these laws are not known to many women who faces violence at home. So these laws will only be helpful when they will become known to all the women.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND RISKS OF INTIMATE PARTNER

VIOLENCE?

According to the ecological model, it is said that there are four factors over which violence is being resulted ie individual, relationship, community, and societal. Researchers have done their level best to know about these variations and factors still factors like community and societal about which much is not known. It is important to note that at the individual level factors are associated with perpetration and victimization or with both.


Individual Factors

One of the most important factors, some of the reasons of violence of towards their partner is:-

1. Low level of education

2. Harmful use of alcohol and drugs

3. Personality disorder

4. Past history of abusing partner

5. Witnessing or experiencing violence as a child

6. Young age

7. Acceptance of violence


Factors associated with women increased likelihood of increasing violence by her partners:-


1. Exposure of violence between parents

2. Sexual abuse during childhood

3. Acceptance of violence

4. low level of education

5. Exposure to other forms of prior abuse


Relationship factors:-

Though much research is not done on it , known factors under this include:-

1. Male dominance in the family

2. Economic stress

3. Man having multiple partners

4. Conflict or dissatisfaction in the relationship

5. The disparity in educational attainment ie. When the female partner has much educational

level than male partners.


Community or Societal factors

The factors included in this are:-

1. Poverty

2. Weak legal sanction within IPV in marriage

3. The low social and economic status of women

4. Gender inequitable social norms ( especially the ones which includes violence and aggression

as notions of manhood )

5. Lack of civil rights which include weal structure of divorce law )

6. Broad acceptance of violence as the to resolve conflict

7. Weak community sanction against IPV.

8. Armed conflict and acceptance of gender violence in society.


CONSEQUENCES OF INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

From the components of IPV, it is clear that it affects women both physically and mentally.

When we talk about physical effects it is very direct and visible effects but mental effects are not visible as they indirectly cause stress and leads to other personality disorder in women. Therefore if any woman at any part of the time has faced any kind of violence it will have an adverse effect on women in the future too.

Research shows that the abuse has a long-lasting effect on women’s mental and physical health.

The harsher the abuse the more women get affected by it physically and mentally.

Injury and Physical health

Physical violence because of IPV includes head injury, slight hearing disorder, broken bones

and teeth, fracture, attempted strangulation and back and neck injury. Other than physical injury like this certain injuries are difficult to diagnose. These injuries are referred to as functional disorders or stress-related conditions. Abused women are twice unhealthy mentally and physically when compared to non-abused women although the abuse might have occurred years ago. The effects of abuse last long both on physical and mental health.

Mental health and suicide Women who are being abused by their partners are more likely to suffer depression, anxiety, and phobias than non-abused women. In addition to this these women also get addicted for:-

1. Poor self-esteem

2. Post-traumatic stress disorder

3. Smoking

4. Self-harm

5. Eating and sleeping disorders

6. Alcohol and drug abuse

7. Physical inactivity

8. Unsafe sexual behavior

9. Smoking

10. Self-harm

11. Personality disorders

These are some effects that can be seen in women who are being abused by their partners. These effects in all the cases do not start immediately. It might take years after which these effects can be seen.

Sexual and reproductive health

The sexual health of women is one of the most important factors to maintain the proper overall health of women. IPV leads to so many sexual disorders including unwanted pregnancy, unwanted abortion, sexually transmitted disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, urinary tract infection, and sexual dysfunction. IPV can lead to sexually transmitted disease through various indirect pathways like forceful sexual intercourse in a marriage or negotiations of not using contraceptives during sexual intercourse, these things may do not have direct or immediate effects but have their effects on women's mental health also.


Violence during pregnancy

According to some research, it has been shown that violence during pregnancy is also increasing.

This violence during pregnancy leads to:-

1. Stillbirth

2. Late entry into prenatal care

3. Premature labor and birth

4. Miscarriage

5. Fetal injury

6. Low birth weight or small for gestational age infants

IPV may also lead to maternal mortality as pregnancy is the most fragile period of a women’s

life in which she needs the utmost care. So any physical or mental abuse during pregnancy has adverse effects on both mother and the child.

Effects on children It has been shown that IPV on women also has adverse effects on their children as children are mostly connected to their mothers. Seeing violence with their mothers can lead children to depression, anxiety, poor school performance, and negative health outcomes. This s might be possible that seeing violence against mother children may learn the same and perform this in their future life which will lead to another case. Studies say that children whose mothers are being abused:-

1. Are less likely to be immunized

2. Have a higher rate of diarrheal disease

3. Are at greater risk of dying before age of five.


CONCLUSION

IPV is one of the most serious problems and a way to violence against women which is under-recognized. It puts victims at both physical and mental risk and drains them completely in every way possible. The problem is supported by many factors like social, economic, legal, and cultural factors. The patriarchy in our society is one of the major causes of this. These things do not only affect women but their children and other family members get affected by this too. In India, we treat women as Goddess because Indian women by maintaining the culture of the society have always proved themselves that they are worth it, Somewhere or the other the whole family revolves around a woman so hurting them means hurting the epicenter of the family which will lead to the disturbance for all the family members. The only way of prevention for this is to sensitize the community and the medical system which will enable prevention, early screening, and intervention in such cases. The only way to preserve the Indian culture is to keep women safe and happy. To keep our family stable we need to keep our foundation strong which completely depends on a woman so we as a society need to help women grow emotionally and

economically.

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REFERENCE

1. Article on Neighborhoods, Alcohol Outlets and Intimate Partner Violence: Addressing

Research Gaps in Explanatory Mechanisms BY Carol B Cunradi

2. A Pandemic within a Pandemic :- Intimate Partner violence during Covid 19

.(https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp2024046)

3. Intimate Partner Violence In Golden Age :- Systematic review Of Risk and factors

(https://theconversation.com/global/topics/intimate-partner-violence-15047)

4. Intimate Partner Violence (

https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/index.html)

5. Intimate partner violence against women and its association with pregnancy loss in Ethiopia:

evidence from a national survey

(https://bmcwomenshealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12905-020-01028-z)


ABOUT THE AUTHOR-

MIHIKA PANDEY

Research Intern,Stambh Organisation India

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